Yet another niggling XML syntax question

Richard Goerwitz richard at
Sat Feb 27 03:11:03 GMT 1999

roddey at wrote:

> Does the following violate the 'partial markup in entity' rule of XML?
> <!ENTITY Part1 "<!ELEMENT ">
> <!ENTITY Part2 " Bubba ANY>">
> <!ENTITY Whole "%Part1;%Part2">
> %Whole;

The sentence you are looking for in the standard occurs in section

  All internal parameter entities are well-formed by definition.

As you gathered, you need the trailing space after !<ELEMENT above,
since parameter entities are included literally when used in entity
values (that is, they don't get padded with spaces).

If you run the following text through a validator, the only error
you'll see says that you're using parameter entities more liberally
than the XML standard allows for the internal DTD subset:

<!DOCTYPE Bubba [
  <!ENTITY % Part1 "<!ELEMENT ">
  <!ENTITY % Part2 " Bubba ANY>">
  <!ENTITY % Whole "%Part1;%Part2;">


Richard Goerwitz
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