Use of '&' in element of XML Document

Rick Jelliffe ricko at
Wed Jul 28 07:02:31 BST 1999

From: John E. Simpson <simpson at>

>It's possible I'm missing something extremely (perversely) subtle, but
>don't get the sense of "*cannot* redeclare" [emphasis added] at all in
>above passage. True, it does say that "all XML processors must
>the predefined entities. If no redeclaration at all were permitted, the
>sentence beginning "If the entities in question are declared" wouldn't
>a lot of sense, right?

There is a similar issue with xml:lang.

Some processors (e.g. early LotusXSL and others) did not have built-in
declarations for xml:lang.  But when you tried to give one, it required
a namespace declaration. And then it would say that declaring an
xml namespace was not allowed.

I think it is a sign of inadequate testing. Developers should check that
their products allow xml:lang in WF, valid and namespaced documents.
Even just putting xml:lang="en-US"  on one  element in a test file
expose  the problem.

The spec says "In valid documents, this attribute, like any other, must
declared if  it is used."

Rick Jelliffe

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