In cont. of & in element

John Cowan cowan at
Thu Jun 3 21:18:51 BST 1999

Navreena Gill wrote:

> Thanks a lot for replying to my question regarding & in an element's
> value. I have been trying  to read REC-xml-199.. of W3C to get list of
> such forbidden characters. Looks like & <  ' " %.

% is only an issue within DTDs, not within document instances.

' and " are an issue only in attribute values that are enclosed
in ' and " respectively.

< and & are a problem everywhere.

> I was offered suggestion
> to use CDATA for using & in the value. What is CDATA?

You can suppress the special meaning of all characters within
document content (not attribute values) by enclosing them
in the special quotation marks "<![CDATA[" and "]]>".  Of course,
the appearance of "]]>" within your data will screw even this up.

John Cowan		cowan at
	You tollerday donsk?  N.  You tolkatiff scowegian?  Nn.
	You spigotty anglease?  Nnn.  You phonio saxo?  Nnnn.
		Clear all so!  'Tis a Jute.... (Finnegans Wake 16.5)

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